UPSC GS 2 daily answer writing model answers 24th January 2022
Topic: Indian Constitution—Historical Underpinnings,
Question 1:What were the objectives of the Cabinet Mission? Discuss the reasons of its failure in charting the constitutional future of India.(Answer in 150 words)10
- Introduce briefly
- Briefly write about the objectives of the
- Discuss the reasons of its failure
Introduction: The cabinet mission was sent to India in March
1946 to find out ways and means for a negotiated, peaceful transfer of power to
- To reach an agreement with Indian leaders of all
parties and groups on the issues of interim government and principles and
procedures for framing a new constitution.
- To formulate a constituent assemble for India.
- To establish an Executive Council with the
support of the major Indian parties.
Reasons for its failure:
Cabinet Mission proposals
Reasons for the failure
| a) Rejection of the demand for a full-fledged Pakistan b) The existing provincial assemblies were distributed into 3 sections based on Hindu-Muslim majority equations. c) Provinces were to have full autonomy and residual powers. ||
a) Muslim League objected this. Jinnah called for Direct
action day on 16th August 1946. Urged Muslims to demand Pakistan
by any means.
b) The Congress did not accept this proposal of the
grouping of provinces on the basis of Hindu-Muslim majority.
c) The Congress wanted a strong centre with minimum powers
for the provinces.
Conclusion: The cabinet Mission had to deal with competing interests of INC and Muslim League. At the Shimla conference the cabinet mission tried to facilitate an agreement between both the parties. However it was failed and as a result the Mission came out with its own Cabinet Mission plan. It had significant influence over the deliberations of the Constituent assembly.
Question 2: Give a brief description of the events and causes leading to the enactment of the Government of India act 1935. (Answer in 250 words)15
- Introduce by Briefly explore the
overall background of its enactment
- Describe briefly the major events and
causes of its enactment
- Conclude by explore its significance
in India’s constitutional history
Introduction: The Government of India Act 1935 was based on
the facts and considerations of several experiences and outcomes which include
the Simon Commission Report, the recommendations of the Round Table conferences
and the White Paper by British government in 1933.
and causes of its enactment: a chain of
events related to constitutional developments leading to GOI act 1935.
The Simon commission: The GOI Act 1919 contained provision for the appointment
of a Royal Commission at the end of 10 years to report on the working of the
act. The principle working behind this was that constitutional progress should
be achieved gradually. The Simon
commission was appointed to inquire into the working of provincial governments,
to examine how far the representative institutions were functioning
satisfactorily and to draft the outlines for the future progress in
establishing responsible government. it was boycotted as it did not have any
Indian member. The popular resentment against the commission reflected the
feeling that the future constitution of India should be framed by the people
parties conference and Nehru Report: Boycotting
the Simon Commission was a negative way of response. The challenge was to frame
a proposal of constitutional reforms acceptable to all. For this an All party
conference was called at Delhi. Nehru report was the outcome of these
deliberations. However the Nehru report was also criticized because of its
acceptance of Dominion status.
c) Civil disobedience Movement: The Simon
commission report was rejected by almost all Indian Parties and the Indian
masses participated in Civil Disobedience Movement.
d) Round Table conferences: The Labour party led government found Simon report inadequate. This led to a decision of having round table conferences to deliberate upon and bring about constitutional reforms in British India. The achievements of these Round table conferences were not concrete. However the recommendations of this conference were published in a white paper in 1933. These recommendations were deliberated upon in British Parliament and the Government of India Act 1935 was passed on its basis.
Conclusion: The GOI Act 1935 proved to be a giant leap towards the independence of India and paved the way for the Indian Independence Act 1947. It introduced several features which were incorporated into the Indian constitution.