UPSC daily answer writing Practice Model answers 25th January 2022
Topic: Indian Constitution—Evolution, Features,
Question 1: Critically comment on the salient features of the Indian Constitution. (Answer in 150 words)10
- Briefly introduce idea of a constitution or its significance in body politic.
- Salient features of the Indian constitution and critical comments on the significance of these features
a ) introduction: The constitution of India is a lengthy, voluminous document that deals with various aspects of statecraft.
b) Salient features of the Indian constitution:
i) Parliamentary democracy: India is a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster model of the UK. In such a framework, the head of the government is the PM who has a council of Ministers to coordinate with him and to assist him in the day-to-day task of the administration.
Critique: There has been a demand for presidential form of government from various quarters, as it provides more stability in governance of the country. And the government of the day will not have to come under the pressure of coalition partners’ obligations.
ii) Independence of the Judiciary: The provisions of the constitution have ensured that the judges are able to discharge their official duties without fear or favour.
Critique: There has been growing demand for more transparency in appointment process of higher judiciary and greater accountability in working of judiciary.
iii) Cooperative federalism: India is neither a pure federal state nor a strict unitary state. In the given constitutional framework, the union and state governments act in a spirit of cooperation.
Critique: There have been several thorny issues in Indian federal framework which come out in form of coercive federalism. E.G. GST issue, New IAS rules etc.
Conclusion: Constitution is an organic document; it lives the spirit of people. There must be efforts from all the stakeholders to uphold the essence of constitution.
Question 2: Describe briefly the formation, composition and functioning of Constituent Assembly.(Answer in 250 words)15
- Briefly introduce about Indian constituent assembly
- Process of its formation: how it was envisaged?
- Composition of constituent assembly: Members profiles, how this helped constitution making.
- Functioning of constituent assembly
- Conclusion: overall significance of constituent assembly
a) Brief introduction: The constituent assembly was especially constructed and convened for the explicit purpose of formulating the fundamental law for Independent India.
b) Process of its formation: The constituent assembly was the creation of the Cabinet Mission plan (March1946). The members of the Constituent assembly were elected by the provincial assemblies by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The Sikh and Muslim legislators elected their own separate delegates on the basis of their respective population. The Congress tried to give it a more representative status and 30 delegates were elected from various social groups who were not event the members of Congress party.
c) Composition of constituent assembly: The constitution of India has been drafted and created by a body of learned people from different walks of life. Despite having been elected by the privileged sections of the society the Constituent assembly represented different shades of opinions and ideologies. It has been observed that though there was a majority of the Congress in the Constituent Assembly, it had an unwritten and unquestioned belief that Congress should represent social and ideological diversity. It included non-congress members like Dr. Ambedkar, A.K. Ayyer and N.G. Ayyanger who were brought by the Congress as “experts”. The constituent assembly included representatives from three religious communities and also from princely states.
d) Functioning of constituent assembly: The constituent assembly adopted several provisions from different constitutions of the world and adapted to the needs of India. While incorporating different provisions in the constitution, the Constituent assembly adopted the concepts of consensus and accommodation for resolving differences among its members.
e) Conclusion: The constituent assembly sought to address concerns of every person irrespective of their social and cultural orientations. It was the arduous task which was completed within a period of three years. It goes to the credit of the Assembly that the constitution of free India withstood the challenges like Emergency.