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UPSC daily answer writing Practice Model answers 25th January 2022

UPSC daily answer writing Practice Model answers 25th January 2022

Topic: Indian Constitution—Evolution, Features,

Question 1: Critically comment on the salient features of the  Indian Constitution. (Answer in 150 words)10

Structure:

  • Briefly introduce idea of a constitution or its significance in body politic.
  • Salient features of the Indian constitution and critical comments on the significance of these features
  • Conclusion

a ) introduction: The constitution of India is a lengthy, voluminous document that deals with various aspects of statecraft.

b) Salient features of the Indian constitution:

i) Parliamentary democracy: India is a parliamentary democracy based on the Westminster model of the UK. In such a framework, the head of the government is the PM who has a council of Ministers to coordinate with him and to assist him in the day-to-day task of the administration.

Critique: There has been a demand for presidential form of government from various quarters, as it provides more stability in governance of the country. And the government of the day will not have to come under the pressure of coalition partners’ obligations.

ii) Independence of the Judiciary: The provisions of the constitution have ensured that the judges are able to discharge their official duties without fear or favour.

Critique: There has been growing demand for more transparency in appointment process of higher judiciary and greater accountability in working of judiciary.

iii) Cooperative federalism: India is neither a pure federal state nor a strict unitary state. In the given constitutional framework, the union and state governments act in a spirit of cooperation.

Critique: There have been several thorny issues in Indian federal framework which come out in form of coercive federalism. E.G. GST issue, New IAS rules etc.

Conclusion: Constitution is an organic document; it lives the spirit of people. There must be efforts from all the stakeholders to uphold the essence of constitution.

Question 2: Describe briefly the formation, composition and functioning of Constituent Assembly.(Answer in 250 words)15

Structure:

  • Briefly introduce about Indian constituent assembly
  • Process of its formation: how it was envisaged?
  • Composition of constituent assembly: Members profiles, how this helped constitution making.
  • Functioning of constituent assembly
  • Conclusion: overall significance of constituent assembly

a) Brief introduction: The constituent assembly was especially constructed and convened for the explicit purpose of formulating the fundamental law for Independent India.

b) Process of its formation: The constituent assembly was the creation of the Cabinet Mission plan (March1946). The members of the Constituent assembly were elected by the provincial assemblies by a single, transferable-vote system of proportional representation. The Sikh and Muslim legislators elected their own separate delegates on the basis of their respective population. The Congress tried to give it a more representative status and 30 delegates were elected from various social groups who were not event the members of Congress party.

c) Composition of constituent assembly: The constitution of India has been drafted and created by a body of learned people from different walks of life. Despite having been elected by the privileged sections of the society the Constituent assembly represented different shades of opinions and ideologies. It has been observed that though there was a majority of the Congress in the Constituent Assembly, it had an unwritten and unquestioned belief that Congress should represent social and ideological diversity. It included non-congress members like Dr. Ambedkar, A.K. Ayyer and N.G. Ayyanger who were brought by the Congress as “experts”. The constituent assembly included representatives from three religious communities and also from princely states.

d) Functioning of constituent assembly: The constituent assembly adopted several provisions from different constitutions of the world and adapted to the needs of India. While incorporating different provisions in the constitution, the Constituent assembly adopted the concepts of consensus and accommodation for resolving differences among its members.

e) Conclusion: The constituent assembly sought to address concerns of every person irrespective of their social and cultural orientations. It was the arduous task which was completed within a period of three years. It goes to the credit of the Assembly that the constitution of free India withstood the challenges like Emergency.

UPSC Ethics daily answer writing Practice 25th January 2022 Model answer

UPSC Ethics daily answer writing Practice 25th January 2022 Model answer

Topic:Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, Determinants and Consequences of Ethics in – Human Actions; Dimensions of Ethics; 

Question: What do you understand by moral pluralism? Explain its significance in assessing ethicality of human actions.(150 words)10

Modal Answer:

Structure:

  • Define Moral Pluralism
  • How moral pluralism perspective can be used to assess whether a human action is ethical or not.
  • Conclude with a pragmatic view

Moral pluralism: Moral pluralism is an acceptance of the view that there is a diversity related to prevailing moral values, ideals, virtues and norms. It propagates the idea that a single unified framework and methodology is neither available nor desirable. Unlike moral relativism, moral pluralism holds that there are rational constraints on what can count as a moral value.

According to moral pluralism people not only hold different moral values or moral principles, but also work out different moral frameworks and with different moral methodologies.

It is important to understand that there exists an equally competing value or perspective, thus it makes a person or a group of persons having particular moral values, more accommodative of views of others. It helps into the critical enquiry of a particular moral or ethical issue which does not a specific answer.

For instance, in case of euthanasia or abortion where a patient and physician can hold different views.  The physician may speak in the medically best interests of the patient, but not necessarily the overall best interests of the patient. In such cases, both the views are worthy of respect. Therefore moral pluralism suggests to be open-minded when faced with such competing viewpoints. It is also suggested to analyze the moral issue from various dimensions before deciding and taking action.

It is the acceptance of the fact that there are other ways to reach a moral acceptable solution. This prepares a background for a middle path where people having different values system can deliberate upon to find out what is more acceptable to all. This rational exercise gives rise to new sets of ethical principles in society e.g. environmental ethics, bio ethics etc.

UPSC daily answer writing Practice 25th January 2022

UPSC daily answer writing Practice 25th January 2022

Topic: Indian Constitution—Evolution, Features,

Question 1: Critically comment on the salient features of the  Indian Constitution. (Answer in 150 words)10

Question 2: Describe briefly the formation, composition and functioning of Constituent Assembly.(Answer in 250 words)15