UPSC Ethics daily answer writing Practice 25th January 2022 Model answer
Topic:Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, Determinants and Consequences of Ethics in – Human Actions; Dimensions of Ethics;
Question: What do you understand by moral pluralism? Explain its significance in assessing ethicality of human actions.(150 words)10
- Define Moral Pluralism
- How moral pluralism perspective can be used to assess whether a human action is ethical or not.
- Conclude with a pragmatic view
Moral pluralism: Moral pluralism is an acceptance of the view that there is a diversity related to prevailing moral values, ideals, virtues and norms. It propagates the idea that a single unified framework and methodology is neither available nor desirable. Unlike moral relativism, moral pluralism holds that there are rational constraints on what can count as a moral value.
According to moral pluralism people not only hold different moral values or moral principles, but also work out different moral frameworks and with different moral methodologies.
It is important to understand that there exists an equally competing value or perspective, thus it makes a person or a group of persons having particular moral values, more accommodative of views of others. It helps into the critical enquiry of a particular moral or ethical issue which does not a specific answer.
For instance, in case of euthanasia or abortion where a patient and physician can hold different views. The physician may speak in the medically best interests of the patient, but not necessarily the overall best interests of the patient. In such cases, both the views are worthy of respect. Therefore moral pluralism suggests to be open-minded when faced with such competing viewpoints. It is also suggested to analyze the moral issue from various dimensions before deciding and taking action.
It is the acceptance of the fact that there are other ways to reach a moral acceptable solution. This prepares a background for a middle path where people having different values system can deliberate upon to find out what is more acceptable to all. This rational exercise gives rise to new sets of ethical principles in society e.g. environmental ethics, bio ethics etc.